Background Information



U-plan houseRef 1-11
A house with two cross-wings at right-angles to the main hall, giving a U shaped plan.

See Fleece, Elland, Halifax house, Hall-and-cross-wing and Rose & Crown, Elland

UK National Inventory of War MemorialsRef 1-1122
An online list of the War Memorials and Rolls of Honour which are / were to be seen in the UK

UKNIWMRef 1-1118
Abbr: UK National Inventory of War Memorials

UllnageRef 1-79
Also Aulnage. The fee – in the 15th century, ½d per piece – paid to an ullnager for assaying and marking a piece of cloth.

The tax was introduced in 1353.

Ullnage was in addition to the king's subsidy tax on the cloth.

In 1700, the lord of the manor claimed 1d for every piece of undressed cloth sold at the Piece Hall, receiving 30/- to 40/- per week from the charge.

The length of the cloth was measured in ells.

See Assize of Cloth

UltimogenitureRef 1-956
Aka Borough-English. The right or custom by which land or a title passes to the youngest son.

See Primogeniture

Unadopted roadRef 1-U1
A road or street which is not maintained by the local authority, and the maintenance of which is the responsibility of the owners of the properties which front on to the street

Unattached MaterialRef 1-1830
Some original source material submitted to Malcolm Bull's Calderdale Companion cannot immediately be linked directly to existing entries

In order to make this accessible to Internet search engines, I propose to hold it as a set of unattached pages The Foldout collects these unattached pages

UncleRef 1-U3
The word was often used to mean an older, male relative

Under-over houseRef 1-2416
A type of top-and-bottom house with one house built above another. The upper house was reached by a flight of stairs at the side of the block.

See Denholme Cottages

UnderdwellingRef 1-28
A small house – as distinct from cellar housing – which lay beneath another dwelling.

See Back-to-earth and Dwelling and underdwelling

Union WorkhouseRef 1-131
This was a large workhouse run by a Poor Law Union of parishes, introduced by the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. Each union had one workhouse.

See Halifax Union Workhouse and Todmorden Union Workhouse

UnitarianismRef 1-122
A Liberal Protestant sect which rejects the doctrine of the Trinity – a belief which was punishable by death in the 16th and 17th century – and which believes that God is a single entity, and stresses the humanity of Jesus Christ, individual freedom of belief, the free use of reason in religion, and liberal social action.

They called their groups societies, in order to circumvent the law, until the Trinity Act [1813]. John Fielden joined a small group of Unitarians who met at a room in Hanging Ditch, Todmorden. In 1823, they formed a Unitarian Society at Cockpit.

Unitarians were seen as radicals and revolutionaries, and, in 1789, they supported the French Revolution.

In the 18th century, most Independent and Presbyterian churches in the larger West Riding towns became Unitarian.

See Methodist Unitarian and Northgate End Unitarian Church

UniteRef 1-2962
To celebrate his accession to the English throne, in 1604, James I issued a gold crown called the unit or unite carrying the inscriptions
King of Great Britain


I will make them one people

Charles I introduced a half unite coin worth 10/- and a triple unite worth £3 in 1642

United BritonsRef 1-1123
An illegal republican movement of the 18th/19th century.

See St Crispin Republican Club

United Methodist ChurchRef 1-400
Formed in 1907 when the Methodist New Connexion, the Methodist Free Church, and the Bible Christians amalgamated

United Reformed ChurchRef 1-127
The Congregationalists and the Presbyterians merged to form the United Reformed Church in 1972

See Booth United Reformed Church, Heath United Reformed Church, Halifax, Highroad Well, Warley & Luddendenfoot United Reformed Church, Lightcliffe United Reformed Church, Luddendenfoot United Reformed Church, Moor End United Reformed Church, Pellon, Northowram United Reformed Church, Norwood Green United Reformed Church, Park United Reformed Church, Halifax, Providence United Reformed Church, Elland, Providence United Reformed Church, Illingworth, Providence United Reformed Church, Stainland, Sowerby United Reformed Church, Stainland & Holywell Green United Reformed Church, Stainland Providence United Reformed Church, United Reformed Church, Carlton Street, Waring Green United Reformed Church and Zion United Reformed Church, Ripponden

Unlocated GraveRef 1-1283
A grave at Lister Lane Cemetery which appears in the Cemetery archives but is unmarked and has not been found.

There are 76 such burials numbered

4671 to 4746

and it is possible that these may lie beneath the path at the east side of the cemetery.

See Private grave and Public grave

Up-and-over houseRef 1-U2
Another name for top-and-bottom houses

Urban district councilRef 1-425
Abbr: UDC. An administrative body responsible for local affairs in larger towns.

These were introduced by the Local Government Act [1894].

They UDC replaced the earlier townships.


Barkisland Urban District Council
Brighouse & Spenborough

Calder Vale Urban District Council

Elland Urban District Council

Greetland Urban District Council

Hebden Bridge Urban District Council
Hebden Royd Urban District Council
Hipperholme Urban District Council

Local Board
Luddendenfoot Council Offices
Luddendenfoot Urban District Council

Midgley Urban District Council
Mytholmroyd Urban District Council

Northowram Urban District Council

Queensbury & Shelf Urban District Council

Ripponden Urban District Council
Rural district council

Shelf Urban District Council
Southowram Urban District Council
Sowerby Bridge Urban District Council
Sowerby Urban District Council
Stainland Urban District Council
Stainland-with-Old-Lindley Urban District Council

Todmorden Urban District Council

Warley Urban District Council

US aliens in World War IRef 1-981
During World War I, all males in the US between the ages of 18 and 45 were required to register for the Draft.

Aliens were also required to register but were not subject to induction in the American Military.

Thus, the fact that a man had a Registration Card does not imply that he served in the US Military

USA Census 1890Ref 1-398
The 1890 census for the USA was damaged (around 1933) by water when there was a fire in the basement where the returns were stored. Some time later it was decided to destroy all the documents, though a very small part survived, including a special census of Civil War veterans which was carried out in 1890

UtfangthiefRef 1-1638
Aka Utfangentheof, Utfangenetheof. An Old English term for the right granted by the Crown to manorial lords and empowering them to judge and hang a felon caught outside their jurisdiction and in possession of stolen goods.

See Right of Gallows, Gibbet Law and Infangthief

© Malcolm Bull 2023
Revised 02:53 / 22nd February 2023 / 17271

Page Ref: B113_U

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