Background Information



TRef 1-1256
In mediæval times, a person found guilty of theft might be branded with the letter T

T-plan houseRef 1-12
A house with a single cross-wing at right-angles to the main hall, giving a T shaped plan.

See Halifax house, Hall-and-cross-wing and Mytholmroyd Farmhouse

T. R. E.Ref 1-T60
From the Latin tempora regis Edwardii meaning in the time of King Edward. The term is used in Domesday Book to indicate the tax at the time of the death of king Edward the Confessor, that is, in February 1066, when it was implied that all in the realm was legally correct and ownership of lands would have been rightfully secured. By documenting the value of land and property before and at the time of compiling Domesday Book, William the Conqueror was able to see how England had benefited from the Conquest

TackRef 1-551
A contract between an owner and a tenant, or Tacksman, which granted the tenant possession of a parcel of land for a stated period of years.

The tack fixed an annual rent in cash or kind and a fixed expiry term. It also determined whether the tenant could assign the land to a third party.

For periods of shorter than 19 years, this had to be explicitly allowed in the tack, but was permissible at the tenant's discretion in longer term tacks

This & associated entries use material contributed by Joanne Backhouse

TaffetaRef 1-2939
A light, thin, silk cloth of high lustre, used for making dresses. The name is said to come from the Persian taftah, meaning twisted. The fabric was brought into England about the 14th century. In the 16th century, it became a luxury for women's wear. The cloth is used for suits and coats, slips, ribbons, blouses, umbrellas The term is also used for fabric comprising mixtures of silk and wool

Taking-inRef 1-206
The practice of taking yarn and other materials from a putter-out for production of pieces of cloth on a handloom.

Many yeomen's houses – such as

- have a separate taking-in door with a flight of taking-in steps for the business of handling yarn and wool.

Some more modest buildings also have such doors

Other buildings had a hoist-beam instead of steps, and the beams can be seen in some instances.

The taking-in doors are now often blocked or converted to windows

Tales, myths & legendsRef 1-380
There are several entries for tales, myths and legends with links to the district

Abel Cross, Crimsworth Dean
Asa Farrar Stone, Rastrick
Bearnshaw Tower, Todmorden
Tom Bell
Black Clough, Heptonstall
Black Horse, Hove Edge
Blakelaw, Hartshead
Boggart Stones
T' Cat i' th' Well, Luddenden Dean
Churn Milk Joan
Clifton Dragon
Coiners & coining
Devil's Rock, Eastwood
Sir Roger de Doncaster
Jim Fenton
Fleece, Elland

Fold Farm, Illingworth
Folk Tales From Calderdale
Gabriel Ratchetts
Ghosts & Legends of the Lower Calder Valley
The Halifax Slasher
Hodgekins & the Gibbet
Johnny at Pasture
Kirklees Vampire
Leatherty Coit
Long Wall Mouse
Lucky Dog of Todmorden
Mixenden treasure
Nether House, Hove Edge
Night whisslers
Nuns' Grave, Kirklees Nunnery

Old Hall, Elland
Piece Hall: Hand prints
Joseph Priestley
Prince Albert Statue, Halifax
Elizabeth Rayner
Saint Helen's Well, Holywell Green
Saint Mark's Eve Vigil
James Shackleton
Elizabeth de Staynton
Lady Sybil
Three Nuns, Mirfield
Tom Bell's Cave
Two Lads standing stones, Todmorden
Yorkshire Mixtures

TallageRef 1-T9
A rent or tax levied on boroughs and on the tenants living on royal estates. It was last levied in 1332, and was abolished in 1340

TallowRef 1-2461
Animal fat – typically of sheep or oxen – which was used for making soap and candles. It was also used as a constituent of the plaster covering for walls. The animal tissue was boiled and the tallow skimmed from the surface

TallyRef 1-T49
A wooden stick which was used as a receipt. The stick was marked with notches to indicate the sum of money which was involved. The stick was then split in half lengthways, and one half given to the creditor, and the other to the debtor

An Act of 1783 abolished tallies in the English Exchequer, but their use lingered until about 1820.

The conflagration of the Houses of Parliament in 1834 was caused by the combustion of tallies which had accumulated for centuries

Tally-ironRef 1-T1
A device for shaping the starched fabric of a lady's bonnet.

The name is a corruption of the word Italian

TanistryRef 1-388
A tenure in Irish law, founded on immemorial usage, according to which the actual holder of lands and property had but a life estate in them. The regulation of the succession belonged to the family

TannerRef 1-2982
Popular name for the 6d coin before decimalisation. The coin was introduced in 1551. It was discontinued in 1980

Tanning industryRef 1-357
Tanning was carried out at Hartshead and Clifton. In the early period, this was a domestic business, but a large factory was established in 1???, and demolished in 1970.

See Bell Pit and Industry

Tar macadamRef 1-T63
Used for road surfaces from the beginning of the 19th century

Tar waterRef 1-2132
A weak infusion of tar in water. This was a popular cure-all

TasterRef 1-T4
A cup for tasting wine

Tea cakeRef 1-1224
Local term for a bread cake. Typically, about 6 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick. May be plain or with currants.

See Oven-bottom cake and Whitsuntide Buns

Tea DealersRef 1-T1100

Teachers' RestRef 1-T7
A popular name for the annual September Break holiday.

Does anyone remember the rhyme?

Teacher's Rest
Mother's Pest

Teasel plantRef 1-260
Aka Teazel.

The large prickly heads of the plant – dipsacus fullonum – were mounted on a wooden frame and used for carding and for raising the nap on cloth.

They were grown commercially for use in the textile industry.

They were later replaced by more durable cards, which were about 12 inches by 5 inches and resembled hand-brushes or table-tennis bats studded with iron pins.

The process of carding was also known as teaselling or tazelling.

See Gig mill and Nelly

TeasingRef 1-288
The cloth-making process which opens and disentangles fibres prior to carding.

See Willying

TeethRef 1-1128
A term which was used in death / burial records from the 17th century to denote a child who died in his/her first year.

The term was used because it was believed that the teething process was a cause of infant deaths

TeindRef 1-T8
A Scottish term for tithe

TemperanceRef 1-339
The drunkenness of the working classes was a constant source of concern during the 18th/19th century.

The temperance movement – promoting moderation in, or total abstention from, the use of alcohol – started in Britain around 1826, and temperance societies were set up to rescue those whose lives had been blighted by the demon drink.

See Salvation Army

Ten Hours Act [1847]Ref 1-150
Aka The Factory Act [1847]. An Act of Parliament which restricted the working hours of women and young people to a 10½ hour day between 6:00 am and 6:00 pm, with 1½ hours for meals; the hours for adult males were not regulated.

It was prompted by a public campaign – known as the Ten Hours Movement – which was set up 1831 and championed by Michael Sadler, John Fielden and Richard Oastler.

See A Brief Description of a Tour Through Calder Dale, Factory Act, Fielden Society and Short Time Committee

Tenant at willRef 1-1544
A serf who was free, but required to pay his rent and perform his obligations to the lord of the manor

Tenant in chiefRef 1-T41
Someone who held land or property directly from the king, and could grant land from his own holding to others. Holders of this land were his sub tenants, and were responsible to him.

See Social classes

This & associated entries use material contributed by Joanne Backhouse

TennRef 1-915
An heraldic term referring to the stain (colour) tawny / orange

TenterRef 1-5
A wooden frame upon which the finished cloth was stretched to avoid shrinkage during drying and to produce a standard length, width, shape and size for the finished product.

The cloth was fixed to the tenter-frame by means of tenter hooks, which were L-shaped iron nails about 2 in long.

Many of these were produced by nailmakers in south Yorkshire.

The land on which the tenters stood were known as tenter fields and tenter crofts. The name is still found in local placenames such as Tenter Fields, Halifax, Tenter Hill Lane, Cragg Vale and Tenterfields, Luddendenfoot

In the 1720s, Daniel Defoe wrote

... almost at every house there was a tenter, and almost on every tenter a piece of cloth ... look which way we would, high to the tops, and low to the bottoms, it was all the same, innumerable houses and tenters, and a white piece upon every tenter

In some places, the cloth was simply laid on the ground where it would be bleached by the sunlight. In the 19th century, drying was mechanised with the tenter stove.

See Stretchergate, Tenter (occupation) and Winter-hedge

Terraced HousesRef 1-2024
A row of identical houses which share side-walls with their neighbours.

In poorer districts, these may also be back-to-back with a single entrance.

The term Row Houses is used in the USA.

See Blind Back Terrace, Cornholme, Todmorden and One-up-one-down house

TerrierRef 1-1439
Also extent, field book. A document, book or roll which recorded the property and endowments in each parish after the open field system.

The name also refers to a list of land owned by private individuals.

A Glebe Terrier listed this information about church possessions – including tithes

Test Act [1672]Ref 1-2758
The first Test Act [1672], and its successors, disabled Roman Catholics from holding public office or sitting in Parliament, and all officials were required to make a declaration against transubstantiation and to take the sacrament. The Roman Catholic Emancipation Act [1829] removed these disabilities, but no Roman Catholic priest can sit in the House of Commons, and no Roman Catholic can hold the office of Lord Chancellor

TesterRef 1-3032
A canopy or cover such as, the sounding board above a pulpit to amplify and project the speaker's voice, or the ornamental cover over a tomb, or the canopy of a four-poster bed.

A Tester bed has a wooden canopy over the whole bed; a half-tester bed has the canopy over only (the top) half of the bed

TesternRef 1-2968
A coin worth one real issued by Elizabeth I in 1600, along with coins worth two testerns, four testerns, and eight testerns

TestoonRef 1-2983
The first silver shilling coins portrayed the head of Henry VII and were introduced in 1487. The name comes from the French tête

Textile IndustryRef 1-T56

ThackingRef 1-T43
Slating of a roof. Such slates were often made from sandstone.

See Elland flags and Theakstone

ThakstoneRef 1-737
Aka Theakstone.

Stone slabs used for roofing, rather than slates.

The stones were all hand-struck and produced in a variety of sizes that had names such as

  • Slim Jims
  • Fat Ladies
  • Jacks
  • Queens & Kings

and were used to tile the roofs of many buildings in the area & beyond.

These were recorded in the 15th century, and can still be seen all around the district.

The name is a form of thatch-stone.

See Elland flags, Northowram Quarries, Stone quarrying and Thacking

This & associated entries use material contributed by Steven Beasley

ThaneRef 1-1447
Aka Thegn.

A member of one of several aristocratic classes between freeman and Earls, holding land granted to him by the king, or by lords for military service.

Thanage was the tenure, land and rank granted to a thane.

In late Anglo-Saxon England, a man who owned five hides or land, or more, and who was bound by service to the monarch or – later – the feudal lord of the manor. At that time, they were important in the royal army.

See Social classes

This & associated entries use material contributed by Joanne Backhouse

ThegnRef 1-T22
An alternative form of thane. The two words are pronounced alike

Theosophical SocietyRef 1-2020
A Society founded in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky in New York to study theosophy, spiritualism and medium phenomena.

See Dr Bogdan Edward Jastrzebski Edwards, Louis Stanley Jastrzębski and George Edward Sutcliffe

ThibleRef 1-T25
A wooden stick for stirring porridge

ThickRef 1-684
This element is used in place names, such as Thick Hollins, and refers to dense trees and bushes.

See Light

ThimbleRef 1-1445
A small metal cap to protect the finger whilst sewing and darning.

Charles Horner Limited produced a range, of thimbles under the brand name Dorcas

Thin PlainsRef 1-532
A type of cloth

Third cousinRef 1-T6

Third pennyRef 1-T18
A mediæval term referring to the local earl's share of one-third of the fines levied in shire courts. Later, the money was given to a particular manor or church as a regular income

ThistletackRef 1-1262
Allowing animals to stray onto the lord's demesne land. This was a punishable offence

ThorpRef 1-691
Used in place names, the element refers to a village or small settlement.

The word comes from the Old Norse þorp [a farm].

The symbol # is known as an octothorp and was originally a map-makers' symbol representing a central square – the village – surrounded by 8 fields

ThreadRef 1-2933
A measure of cotton equivalent to 54 inches. This was one turn of a reel 54 inches in circumference

Three Kings RingRef 1-1612
Engraved with the names of the MagiYaspar, Melchior and Baltasar – such rings were believed to have curative powers, particularly for epilepsy.

See Kirklees ring

Threepenny bitRef 1-T48
The 3d coin first appeared in 1551.

The 12-sided brass coin was in use from 1937 until 1971

See The Greeasy Chin Club

ThrostleRef 1-93
An improved and faster steam-powered version of the water-frame spinning device which appeared around 1800. This was used for drawing, twisting and winding the fibres when producing worsted yarn.

The throstle could produce enough yarn to support 10 weavers.

The name is said to be derived from the noise which the machine made – resembling a song-thrush

Through-passageRef 1-43
Aka Cross passage. A design for a hall in which a passage connected doors in opposite (front and rear) walls – usually the main entrance and the service areas. Typically, these took over from the hall-and-cross-wing design from 1580 to around 1780. The passage may or may not be screened from the rest of the hall.

Compare the hearth-passage design

ThrowingRef 1-1368
The process of spinning silk. The process was mechanised in 1721

Thrown silkRef 1-741
Silk which has been twisted to produce a workable yarn for weaving. The process – known as throwing – was mechanised in 1721.

In contrast, cotton and wool must first be spun

ThrumRef 1-267
The unwoven end of the warp which is left when the last woven piece is cut from the loom. These were cut off and used to make mops, rugs and other domestic cloths.

The word comes from the Old Norse throemr

Thump PuddingRef 1-746
A dessert, like a plum pudding or Christmas pudding, which was served with custard or a white sauce and eaten on Thump Sunday

Thump SundayRef 1-743
In general, Thump Sunday was celebrated at the end of the local annual fair or festival week.

These events are recorded at Halifax / Ovenden / Stainland.

In Halifax, this was an annual fair held which began on Festival Sunday, after the Feast of St John the Baptist and rush-bearing, when it was the tradition for friends to visit those who lived some distance away. In other places, it was the Sunday after the Wakes Feast.

The Primitive Methodists – the Ranters – held a camp meeting on Skircoat Moor on the Sunday.

The last such fair was recorded in Stainland in 1933.

It has been said that the name comes from the practice of thumping anyone who went into a pub at that time and refused to pay for his drink. What they did to such people at other times is not recorded!

See Richard of Mekesburgh, Rev Enoch Mellor, Joseph Cawthra Perkins, Stainland Musical Festival and Thump pudding

ThursdayRef 1-T23
The day is named after Donar or Thor, the Germanic god of the sky, and Thunor, the god of thunder

ThwaiteRef 1-606
Used in place names and surnames – such as Lewthwaite, Micklethwaite, and Hebblethwaite.

The word comes from the Old Norse tveit [a clearing]. It is usually represented by royd in the Calderdale district

Ticket-of-leaveRef 1-506
A parole document issued to convicts who had been transported and whose good behaviour earned them certain liberties

Ticket of Leave PassportRef 1-586
A document which allowed transported convicts holding tickets of leave to travel between certain points, visit a certain place or to attend the city markets for a specified period of time

This & associated entries use material contributed by Jen Watson

TideRef 1-T27
See Elland Tide

Tiger nutsRef 1-T12
A popular confection – cyperus esculentus – which was chewed for its juice.

They are also known as chufa nuts, earth almonds, or earth nuts, and are the tuberous roots of an African plant of the sedge family. They are small with a brown skin and have a sweet, chestnut-like flavour.

They are eaten in many parts of Africa and are popular in Spain and Mexico, where they are used to make a drink known as horchata

They were popular in Britain in the early 20th century

Tillot ClothRef 1-1034
Aka Tillet and Tilot.

A glazed waterproof cloth used for wrapping textiles for despatch and export.

A tilloter wrapped textiles in tillot cloth, and then secured the wrapping by sewing

This & associated entries use material contributed by Stan Mapstone

TimeRef 1-2818
Until the 19th century, each town and village had its own time, taken from the sun = sun time. London was about 10 minutes ahead of Bristol and the west.

Where precise time-keeping was necessary – as for the times of the various prayers and offices in monasteries – candles might be marked with hour-divisions. A nail might be stuck into the candle so that, when it burnt down and released the nail, it fell into the base of the candle-stick and made a noise to wake the sleeper – a simple alarm clock [for a light sleeper?].

Elsewhere, approximate time could be estimated by the sound of the bell on the church clock striking the hours. In rural contexts, this was probably sufficient for most purposes, as people may have attached less importance to the time than we do today.

From Saxon times until the 17th century, there were also sundials – these are often free-standing or mounted on the walls of churches and houses. It may have been the direction in which the shadow moves – clockwise – that influenced the movement of the hands of a conventional clock when these became mechanised [In the northern hemisphere, that is].

In 1854, as national routes extended, the railway companies lobbied for a standard time to be used throughout Britain.

In 1880, Parliament ordered the whole country to set its clocks by Greenwich Mean Time.

In 1884, Greenwich was adopted as the Universal Time Meridian

Time bargainRef 1-T34
If Person A agrees to sell to Person B in December at a price which is agreed in August, that is a valid transaction.

If Person A subsequently agrees that he will not deliver the goods, but will pay or receive the difference between the market price in August and December, that is also a valid transaction.

But if the two agreements are simultaneous, the transaction is a wagering contract, and cannot be enforced

Time capsuleRef 1-763
A number of entries mention time capsules which were buried in the foundations when buildings were being constructed.

Some examples are those at

Time ImmemorialRef 1-T35
whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary

In English, law a right is considered to be immemorial, or to have existed time out of mind, unless it can be proved that it must have commenced after the 3rd September 1189, the beginning of the reign of Richard I

Time recordersRef 1-703
There were several local companies producing and time-recording equipment for use when employees clock-in and clock-out at work Automatic Cash Displayer, Automatic Cash Till, British Machine Company Limited, Cash Register, Gledhill-Brook Time Recorders Limited, Jubilee Works, Halifax, Simplex Time Recorder Company, Stockall-Brook Time Recorders Limited and Union Cash & Time Recorders Limited

Time signalsRef 1-T42
The public broadcasting of radio time signals by the BBC was introduced in 1924 at the suggestion of Sir Frank Watson Dyson

TingalaryRef 1-T57
A simple piano, operated by turning a handle, and played in the street

TinplateRef 1-443
Thin sheets of wrought iron or steel which are coated with tin to prevent rust and corrosion.

There were several local firms involved in the business of tinning, including George Whitehead & Sons and Whitehead Brothers

TiplashRef 1-1901
A type of beer

TippingRef 1-T32
Alternative name for Knur & Spell

Tippling Act [1751]Ref 1-T36
By this act, no debt of less than 20 shillings for spirituous liquors is recoverable unless it was contracted at one time. A person taking a pledge for the payment of such a debt is liable to a fine of 40 shillings – half to go to the common informer. By an amending act of 1862, spirits sold in quantities of not less than one pint, to be drunk off the premises are exempted

TissickRef 1-791
A cough.

The name was also used for tuberculosis

TitanicRef 1-T426
When the passenger liner RMS Titanic sank in April, 1912 with the loss of 1523 lives, the Halifax Evening Courier produced a special edition. John Sharman broke the news to the White Star shipping line.

See Empress of Ireland, Wallace Henry Hartley, Edward George Holt, Lusitania, Sunny Vale Pleasure Gardens and John Henry Turner

TitheRef 1-1506
Originally, one-tenth of the annual produce of the land or labour, taken as a tax to support the poor, pilgrims, the church and the clergy of the parish.

See Rev Charles Musgrave and Vicarial Tithes, Halifax

TithingRef 1-1241
A mediæval group of people – typically 10 to 12 households in number – who are liable to pay a tithe and each one of whom is responsible for the behaviour of the rest. The head of a tithing group was known as a headborough or a chief pledge and evolved into the rôle of parish constable.

See Frankpledge, Hide and Hundred

Title deedRef 1-1271
Or simply deed, a document which records the right of a named person to own a property

TitlesRef 1-2430
In old documents, titles were significant, especially in the 15th and 16th centuries, and indicate the class and social standing of the individual concerned.

Some of these, from most important to less so, were

Generosus (gentleman) 
The title Mr was only used for Esquire and Generosus (gentleman) 

This & associated entries use material contributed by Joanne Backhouse

Toasting bullRef 1-T5
A device – rather like a stool with an attached fork – which was used for toasting bread in front of an open fire

TodRef 1-T53
A local name for a unit of weight equal to 28 pounds. This was used for weighing wool.

It has been suggested that this element is used in the name of Todmorden

ToftRef 1-220
The element is used in place names and refers to a flat piece of land where a house formerly stood, often visible as a grassy mound or house platform. It is also used to refer to a small farmstead with enclosed land, a village, or a small settlement.

The lane separating the tofts from the fields was often called back lane.

The word comes from the Old Norse toft [an enclosed piece of land].

See Croft

ToilinetteRef 1-534
A type of cloth

TokensRef 1-2940
A coin or other object, the currency value of which is greater than its metal value.

See Samuel Henry Hamer and Truck Act [1831]

Toleration Act [1689]Ref 1-2101
This granted freedom of worship to Dissenters & Nonconformists in the Protestant reign of William & Mary.

See Declaration of Indulgence and Sufferings

Toll gates, toll bars & toll boothsRef 1-T54

Tom PainerRef 1-T37
A follower of Tom Paine.

A name given to anyone who sympathised with the Luddite movement

Tom Pudding bargeRef 1-2157
Rectangular metal containers – typically carrying coal – which were used between 1863 and the 1980s on the Aire & Calder Navigation, several being pulled in train by a tug boat. They were so-called because they looked like a string of sausages – or puddings – as they were pulled along the canal

TonRef 1-1251
Also long ton. A unit of weight equal to 20 hundredweight = 2240 pounds = 1·016 tonnes. A short ton is equal to 2000 pounds = 0·907 tonne = 907·2 kg.

See Rook

TonRef 1-681
Also Tun. Used in place names, the element means an enclosure. The word is derived from the same roots as the modern German Zaun and Dutch tuin which mean a garden

TonnageRef 1-T50
A tax or duty of 3/- which was imposed on each tun of wine imported into England. The duty was payable to the King, and was in force as early as 1347.

The term is also used for a general tax which was based on a ship's capacity

TontineRef 1-T38
A system of life assurance and of purchasing property whereby the advantage lies with the longest liver among a stated number of individuals. The idea was first formulated by an Italian banker, Lorenzo Tonti, in 1653. The principle has frequently been tried in Britain, sometimes in connection with building operations, and at others in life assurance

ToothillRef 1-607
An observation point to look-out for raiding armies – typically of the Old English or Viking period. The name comes from the Old English word toten, which means an observation post, and means a look-out hill.

See Round Hill and Toothill

TopRef 1-222
Long, combed wool fibres suitable for spinning, as distinct from the shorter noils.

A top mill is a factory which cleans and cards wool and sells the tops to spinning mills

Top-and-bottom houseRef 1-17
Aka Double-decker house, House-over-house, Under-over house, and Up-and-Over house.

A design for terraces of housing, each house having an under-dwelling, with two floors on the side which faces towards the hillside and three (or four) floors on the external face of the building which overlooks the valley. The lower house may back on to the hillside. This exploits the slope of the hillside in districts such as Hebden Bridge.

A gallery gave access to houses not directly on the street.

Some local examples were/are those at Chapel Lane, Sowerby Bridge, Eiffel Street, Hebden Bridge, Lane Ends Terrace, Hipperholme and Lees Road, Hebden Bridge

This & associated entries use material contributed by Darrell Prest

Top shopRef 1-78
The top storey of a house which was used as a shop for weaving or for storing cloth. There are examples in Hebden Bridge

ToryRef 1-3041
During the reign of Queen Anne, parliament split up into two groups known as Whigs and Tories – aka Abhorrers – who were thought to be pro-Catholic. The word – which was first used at the time of Charles II – comes from the Irish and was originally a Catholic fighter against the English colonists. The name is now used for the conservative party

ToupetRef 1-T15
Also Toppin. An artificial fringe worn by 19th century ladies

TournRef 1-323
The Wapentake court or Sheriff's court. In Norman times, everyone was required to attend the tourn to swear allegiance to the king.

A meeting of the mediæval court of the Manor of Wakefield – as of every wapentake and hundred – and held every six months. All freeholders were required to be present

TowRef 1-1592
Short fibres of flax, as distinct from the longer lines.

See Noil

Tow pathRef 1-2859
The path alongside the canal which was used by the horses towing boats.

See Roving bridge

TownRef 1-608
Used in place names, such as Beaumont Town, Booth Town, Norland Town, Sowerby Town, and Warley Town, the word means group of houses, and, until the 17th century, was often used instead of the words village and hamlet

Town air is free airRef 1-999
Wording used in some town charters to indicate the freedom of any escaped serf who lived there for a year and a day without being claimed by his lord

Town ClerkRef 1-569
See Borough Treasurer, Town Clerk of Halifax, Town Clerk of Brighouse, Town Clerk of Rastrick and Town Clerk of Todmorden

TownshipRef 1-2479
A part of a parish or chapelry. Typically, it had a small town or a village, possibly with its own church. Although one church may serve several townships.

A stream or river was often the boundary between one township and its neighbour.

As a unit of local government, it was replaced by the urban district council in the mid-19th century.

See Workhouse, Domesday Book, Hamlet, MPs for the West Riding, Nomina Villarum, Outlane, Overseers of the Poor, Townships of Halifax Parish and Vill

TowserRef 1-T20
An old name for a gaol or lockup

TradeRef 1-1317
The word was used in the 19th century by a family (A) who considered themselves higher up the social ladder than another family (B).

For instance, if a daughter of Family A (who were doctors) was considering marriage to a son of Family B (who were manufacturers), Father A might attempt to discourage his daughter by saying

but, this young man, Mr B is trade

Trades & IndustriesRef 1-T58

Trafalgar, Battle ofRef 1-1300
Naval battle in the Napoleonic Wars between the victorious British Royal Navy – under Admiral Horatio Nelson – and the French & Spanish navies [21st October 1805].

The battle took place in south-west Spain, west of Cape Trafalgar, between Cádiz and the Strait of Gibraltar

Train StationRef 1-T51

Trams & buses: BrighouseRef 1-3011

This & associated entries use material contributed by David Nortcliffe

Trams & Buses: Elland & West ValeRef 1-553

See Tram gauges and West Vale House

Trams & buses: HalifaxRef 1-378

See Michael Booth, Halifax Corporation Tramways, Halifax in the Tramway Era, Frederick Spencer, Tidswell Patent Lifeguard and Trolley-bus

Trams & buses: Hebden BridgeRef 1-549

Trams & buses: Sowerby BridgeRef 1-3012

Trams & buses: TodmordenRef 1-3010

Tramways: Coal MiningRef 1-2343
Aka Mineral lines. The railways which were used to transport coal in coal mining areas were known as tramways.

The trains of wagons were hauled by ropes driven by an engine.

In Judy Woods there are examples of stones into which the ropes have worn grooves.

See Bell pits, Clifton coal mining and Norwood Green coal mining

TranseptRef 1-1409
That part of a church which runs north-south and at right angles to the nave. Saxon and earlier churches, up to the early Norman period, comprised the sanctuary and the nave, without a transept

See Crossing

TransportationRef 1-311
From the 17th century, criminals convicted of certain – often petty – crimes were transported to serve their sentence in the newly-discovered colonies in Africa, North America and Australia.

The Foldout lists some of the local people who were transported for their various misdemeanours.

See Assigned servant, Certificate of Freedom, Convict ship, Millbank Prison, London, Prison Hulk, Punishment and Ticket of leave passport

Travelling reliefRef 1-1458
Money paid to members of the Oddfellows who were in search of work

TreadmillRef 1-1555
A form of punishment involved in hard labour.

The prisoner climbed a set of steps – inside or outside – a rotating cylinder with the intention of keeping the prisoners occupied and tiring them out.

The individual prisoners often had partitions, left and right, to prevent them communicating / bonding with other prisoners.

None is recorded in the district.

In Bedford, the treadmill was used to grind flour.

The treadmill was outlawed in 1898, and abolished in prisons in April 1902

TreasonRef 1-1099
See High Treason, Misprision of Treason and Petty Treason

Treasonable Practices Act [1795]Ref 1-1995
Limited the rights of individuals to meet and protest

Treasure troveRef 1-747
A collection of valuable artefacts which is discovered and whose owner – and their heirs – are unknown.

There are several local examples

Treating in ElectionsRef 1-T39
The Corrupt & Illegal Practices Prevention Act [1883] specified that any person who, by himself or his agent, corruptly provides meat or drink before or after an election to another, in order to persuade him to vote, or to abstain from voting, and also the person receiving such meat or drink, are guilty of treating, which is a corrupt practice

TreenRef 1-T45
Treen ware was wooden ware, that is, any object made from trees

Trench footRef 1-1335
Damage to the feet caused by exposure to the cold and wet, such as was suffered by soldiers in the trenches during World War I.

The symptoms are itching, numbness, swelling and discolouration of the feet

TrencherRef 1-442
A plate from which was used to serve or to cut food.

Originally, it was a crust or a piece of stale bread, and was eaten at the end of the meal. Later it was made of wood or metal and reused.

A cook, or someone who had a good appetite, was known as a trencherman

TrentalRef 1-447
An office for the dead. It comprises 30 masses rehearsed for 30 days consecutively, or a memorial service on the 30th day after burial.

See Sir Gilbert Stansfeld

This & associated entries use material contributed by Alan Longbottom

TreycleRef 1-T17
An old spelling of treacle

TribbitRef 1-T31
See Knur & spell

TripRef 1-T59
In the Middle Ages, the word meant a resting place where a journey may be broken – and not the journey itself

TrippantRef 1-768
An heraldic term referring to an animal which is represented as if it were walking, facing the dexter side.

See Couchant and Passant

TrocheRef 1-2270
A small medicated lozenge, often sucked as a cough drop to soothe the throat.

The word comes from the Greek trokhiskos, meaning a small wheel, and is pronounced troh-ki not trosh

TroverRef 1-T40
A form of action at law in England for the recovery of goods wrongfully converted by another to his own use. It is sufficient for the owner to prove that the other person has his goods, and has refused on request to deliver them up. Trover is now generally called wrongful conversion

Troy ounceRef 1-1689
A unit of weight equal to 12/175th of a pound = 31·104 grams. This is used for gold, silver and precious metals. Abbreviated to oz tr.

The troy ounce is still valid as a unit for trade in the UK, following legislation of 1994/5 which replaced some imperial units by metric units See Ounce

Truck Act [1831]Ref 1-2706
Under the Truck System, many companies paid all or a part of their workers' wages in the form of tokens, rather than money. These tokens could be exchanged for goods at the company store, often at grossly-inflated prices.

In October 1860, a number of table-cover weavers took action against John Holdsworth's to recover money which had been stopped out of their wages to pay for the looms which they used in their weaving. The weavers had considerable popular support.

The Truck Act made this practice illegal in many trades.

It has been said that some companies made more money by exploiting their workers in this way, than by their legitimate business.

In 1887, the law was extended to cover most manual workers.

An Act of 1896 placed restrictions on the exaction of fines from workmen. The Factory and Mines Inspectors supervise the working of the acts.

In April 1904, a Parliamentary Committee was appointed to inquire into the working of the Truck Acts.

See Factory Act [1831]

Truckle bedRef 1-T24
A low bed. This was usually stored beneath another bed when not in use

TrystRef 1-T10
A meeting or an agreement to meet. Hence: trysting place

TuberculosisRef 1-858
Aka Consumption, Phthisis, Tissick.

An often fatal disease caused by the tubercle bacillus.

It is highly contagious, and can be contracted through infected milk, water, or meat, or the saliva of an infected person. Symptoms include fever, night sweats, a hollow cough, and the formation of abnormal lumps in organs and other body parts. In humans, the disease mainly affects the lungs. This was treated at isolation hospitals.

Cholera, tuberculosis and typhus were major causes of deaths in Victorian England. In the 19th century, this was more prevalent amongst the working-class, but was found in all levels of society. The growing numbers of people moving around the world has led to an increase in the incidence of the disease in recent times. Because the bacteria was carried in the saliva and lived for a long time, spitting became a punishable crime and carried a severe penalty.

Before the tubercle bacillus was discovered in 1882, the disease was attributed to many causes, including smoking and even a punishment from God. Most doctors felt that tuberculosis was incurable, but many remedies were proposed, including taking opium, horseback-riding, a meat diet, bleeding and purging, smoking cow dung, drinking elephant's blood and milk, eating butter made from the milk of cows which had grazed in churchyards, and eating mouse pie or boiled mice.

Bovine TB, passed in milk which has not been pasteurised, damages the internal organs and the bones of the spine, leading to severe spinal deformities. It is estimated that up to half a million children died from bovine TB from milk in the 19th century

From the late 19th century, moves to prevent infection from tuberculosis became an integral part of local government public health schemes. While the scale of action was dependent on individual authorities and ratepayers, interest was not limited to the pulmonary form of the disease. Effort was also directed at tackling bovine tuberculosis, which by the 1890s had become the most important disease of cows. With meat and milk identified as the main vectors, moves to detect infected livestock and limit the spread of the disease became part of a wider preventive strategy. Measures were introduced to control the sale of tuberculous meat and milk. Eradication schemes were promoted, as concern merged with a growing interest in food safety and agriculture, and became caught up with debates on national efficiency, farming and child health.

Local and national attempts to limit infection from bovine tuberculosis were fuelled by fears about the prevalence of the disease in cattle. A transition in the nature of agriculture, with a shift from arable to livestock and dairy farming, combined with farmers' apparent unwillingness to stamp out bovine tuberculosis, ensured that levels of infection remained high until the 1950s.

See Alexander, Dr Reginald Gervase, John Bancroft, Clare Road Tuberculosis Clinic, Halifax, Kissing the shuttle and Scrofula

This & associated entries use material contributed by Jarlath Bancroft

Tudor roseRef 1-2076
After the final battle at Bosworth Field in 1485, peace was secured by the marriage of Elizabeth of York to Henry Tudor, and the white rose of the House of York was combined with the red rose of the House of Lancaster to form the red-and-white Tudor Rose and this was adopted as a badge by Henry VII.

See The Savile Room

TuelRef 1-764
The forms tuel, duel and dule are used in place names – such as Tuel Lane, Dhoul's Pavement, Dule Hole Bank, and Dulesgate, - the element is derived from the local pronunciation of the word devil.

See Duling

TuesdayRef 1-T21
The day is named after Tiw, the Old English god of war

Tufted carpetRef 1-1552
A type of carpet in which the yarn is stitched into the backing which is then coated with a rubber latex.

It is cheaper and easier to produce commercially.

See Kosset Carpets

Tulip showsRef 1-705
See Travellers' Rest, Hipperholme

TummingRef 1-2553
A stage in the cloth-making process, equivalent to carding

TunRef 1-682
Also Ton. Used in place names, the element means an enclosure

TunRef 1-T55
A unit of volume, equal to 216 gallons

TunstallRef 1-609
Also tonstall. Used in place names, such as Cruttonstall, Heptonstall, Rawtonstall, Saltonstall, Shackletonstall and Wittonstall.

The element combines ton or tun and stall and means a vaccary, farm – or enclosure – with pasture for cattle

TupRef 1-1342
A farmer's term for a ram, an uncastrated male sheep

TurRef 1-687
The element is used in place names, such as Turbury, Turley Holes Moor, and Turvin, and implies that turf or peat was found and cut here

TurbaryRef 1-1318
Aka Turbury. The right to collect peat, turf and other fuel. The right was granted by the lord of the manor, and there were penalties for illegally cutting peat.

The element is used in several local place names – such as Turbury Lane, Greetland

Turk's HeadRef 1-585
A type of brush which was used on the vessels on the nearby canals.

The name may have been used for several local pubs – such as Turk's Head, Sowerby Bridge

TurkeyRef 1-T19
The bird originated in America. It was introduced to England around 1542, and was popularised by James I who did not like pork

Turkey CompanyRef 1-500
Aka The Levant Company. An organisation established around 1581 to trade with Turkey and the Middle East. They traded in goods such as cloth, silk, cotton, cotton cloth, indigo dye, and woollen cloth.

Those involved with the company were often called Turkey merchants

Turkey merchantRef 1-501
Someone who was involved with the Turkey Company, or someone who traded in turkey red cloth

Turkey redRef 1-2908
A cotton cloth dyed with turkey red, a scarlet pigment obtained from the madder.

Turkey cloth was used as a covering for chairs and furniture, and much was produced in Bradford during the 17th century. The industry was badly affected by the fashion for cane furniture.

See Shalloon and Turkey merchant

TurnRef 1-T44
See Tourn

Turned stoneRef 1-2534
A technique used by Joseph Frederick Walsh in which the stones of a building are turned so that the natural undressed face – typically iron-stained – is exposed.

This led to local quarriers refusing to supply him with stone for the building.

Some examples can be seen on Lightcliffe Vicarage and the Windmill, Shelf

Turnover bridgeRef 1-T26
Aka Roving bridge

Turnpike ActsRef 1-2644
Until the late 18th century most roads in Britain were little more than packhorse routes, and were ill-maintained, making travel difficult in wet and snowy weather. Turnpikes were highways that were built and maintained by turnpike trusts, each of which had been set up by individual Acts of Parliament.

The first Turnpike Act was passed in 1653. Subsequently, there were over 1000 Turnpike Acts passed for the establishment of Turnpike Trusts and the construction of turnpike roads in various parts of the country.

The turnpikes were administered by local magistrates until 1706-1711 when independent trustees were established. There was popular resentment and riots against the imposition of the tolls, and many toll-bars were destroyed Those at Bailiffe Bridge and Brighouse were set on fire.

See the Foldout on Local Transport

Turnpike TrustRef 1-2296
A private body established by a Turnpike Act and empowered to construct and charge tolls at a turnpike.

In the 1860s, Parliament decided that roads should be paid for out of council rates, initiating the system we have today. Turnpike trusts began to wind up and they had almost all gone by the 1890s

TurnspitRef 1-T29
A boy who turned the spit whilst roasting meat

TwillRef 1-2897
A fustian cloth in which the weft is passed – over one and under two – to produce a strong, durable fabric with a diagonal appearance.

Records for Akroyd's mill show that they produced the fabric in 1826

See Everlastings

TwinterRef 1-T47
A cow or other animal which is 2 winters old

TwistingRef 1-259
A stage during the spinning stage of cloth-making in which two or more yarns are twisted to produce a stronger and smoother thread.

The work is carried out by a twister

Twisting inRef 1-108
Aka Twissing in. Taking the Luddite oath – in the sense of many fibres being twisted into a thread. Anyone who broke the oath was said to be untwissed.

One version of the oath is given in Phyllis Bentley's novel Inheritance:

In the name of God Almighty, anyone that enters into this society, and declares anything, shall be put to death by the first brother

Tyburn ticketRef 1-T11
A document which exempted its holder from serving any public office. They were issued by magistrates – for public service – to persons involved in the conviction of a felon

Tyburn, YorkRef 1-756

TykeRef 1-T3
The word means any, or all of: a naughty child, an ill-mannered fellow, a dog, a cur, or a Yorkshireman.

Does anyone really use this last meaning seriously? It gets wheeled-out every year when the popular media write about Yorkshire Day.

The word comes from the Old Norse tik meaning a bitch

Types of carpetRef 1-1928
See Axminster, Brussels carpet, Carpet mosaics, Kidderminster, Scotch carpet, Tapestry carpets and Tufted carpet

Typhoid feverRef 1-836
Aka Enteric fever.

A contagious disease caused by the bacterium salmonella typhosa. The disease is spread by contaminated food and water.

The symptoms include fever, diarrhoea, headache, and inflammation of the intestines.

The fever and rash caused some confusion with typhus.

In New York in the 1900s, a woman – Mary Mallon, or Typhoid Mary – was found to be a carrier of the disease but was herself immune to it. She is believed to have caused around 50 cases of infection, with 3 fatalities.

In October 1916, there was a mild outbreak in Cornholme.

See Local Board

TyphusRef 1-801
An infectious disease caused by a parasitic organism transmitted by body lice and fleas. Cases increased in winter, when people washed less and moved about less. The disease was also spread by infection, and discharges, from those already suffering from the disease. Symptoms are headaches, drowsiness, fever, sores, a purple or rose-coloured rash, and delirium. It is also known as gaol fever and low fever

Cholera, tuberculosis and typhus were major causes of deaths in Victorian England.

In 1577, at the Black Assizes in Oxford, the judge and jury died after being infected with typhus carried by the prisoners.

In 1587, there was an outbreak of typhus in Halifax.

In the winter of 1843-1844, there was an outbreak of typhus at Heptonstall Slack – see Dr Robert Howard.

In September 1858, there was an outbreak of typhus in Rastrick. In 1871-1872, a serious epidemic of smallpox and typhus broke out in Halifax.

In 1902, an outbreak of the disease was blamed on the residents at Dawson City.

It was once thought – wrongly – to be a variety of typhoid

© Malcolm Bull 2024
Revised 17:51 / 19th May 2024 / 98550

Page Ref: B113_T

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