Background Information



Jacobean architectureRef 1-546
Architectural style – named for King James VI [1602-1625] – which was found in England during his reign.

JacobinRef 1-2612
An extreme republican or left-wing extremist.

The name comes from a club, formed during the French Revolution, who used a former Jacobin Dominican friary in Paris as their headquarters. Led by Robespierre, the Jacobins proclaimed the French republic and executed the king, beginning the Reign of Terror

Jacobite RebellionRef 1-2374
Aka The Forty-Five. On 25th July 1745, Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Young Pretender, landed in Scotland, intent on overthrowing the House of Hanover. He raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan and marched into England, getting as far south as Derby. He then returned to Scotland where he was defeated at the Battle of Culloden [16th April 1746].

The Jacobite action roused patriotic feelings in England in defence of

the Altar and the Throne

which resulted in the word Union being incorporated into the names of the Union Cross and Union Street.

See Anthony Crossley, General Sir William Fawcett, John Green, General Joshua Guest, Martha Lister, The Union Club, The Union Journal and Archbishop John Tillotson

Jacquard loomRef 1-163
Aka Harness loom. A loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, which used punched cards to control the arrangement of those warp threads which were to be depressed before each passage of the shuttle. On later machines, the punched cards were joined to form an endless loop that represented the program for the repeating pattern of a carpet.

These looms were used in the manufacture of damask and other figured goods.

The technology reached Yorkshire by the 1820s.

Many local trades were involved in the production of the cards and weaving damask.

This superseded the earlier witch and draw-boy.

The earliest recorded use of such looms was in 1827 at James Akroyd & Son's Old Lane Mill.

See Dean Clough E Mill

Jail feverRef 1-854
Aka Gaol fever and Putrid fever. Alternative names for typhus

Jails & GaolsRef 1-655
The Foldout collects the entries for some of the local Jails, Gaols, Prisons, and associated topics

JamesRef 1-42
The James [220 tons] was one of a fleet of ships which left Bristol on 23rd April 1635 for the New World.

It carried about 100 passengers

honest people of Yorkshire

including Matthew Mitchell, his wife Susan, their son Jonathan, and Susan's son Samuel by her first marriage.

Other ships in the fleet were the Angel Gabriel, the Elizabeth, the Mary, and the Diligence.

The Elizabeth, the Mary, and the Diligence – which were smaller and faster – went to Newfoundland.

The Angel Gabriel and the James stayed together, heading for New England.

The Angel Gabriel was wrecked

burst in pieces and cast away

in a great storm off the coast of Maine.

The final leg of the voyage – off the New Hampshire coast – speaks of the terrifying end to the journey; being put into the Isles of Shoals, lost three anchors, and setting sail no canvas or ropes would hold, but she was driven within a cables length of the rocks at Pascataquack, when suddenly the wind, coming to NW put them back to the Isles of Shoals, and being there ready to strike upon the rocks they let out a piece of mainsail and weathered the rocks.

The James landed in Boston badly damaged on 17th August 1635

This & associated entries use material contributed by Carole Edwards Caruso

James's powderRef 1-2808
Aka Fever powder. A medicine – consisting of 1 part antimony oxide to 2 parts calcium phosphate – which was used as a cure for fever. Since antimony is often contaminated with arsenic, the powder was also responsible for the patient ingesting arsenic. The powder was invented by an Englishman, Dr James

Jameson RaidRef 1-724
[29th December 1895-2nd January 1896] An attack carried out by Leander Starr Jameson on Paul Kruger's Transvaal Republic [1895-1896]. The raid was one of the factors which led to the Second Boer War.

See Sir George Herbert Farrar

JeanRef 1-2937
A stout twilled fustian cotton cloth.

George Redmonds says that geanes fustianGenoese fustian – was recorded in Richmond in 1572, and jeanes was selling in North Yorkshire in 1616

JerryRef 1-296
A local name for a finishing machine for shearing or removing the rough surface of cloth

Jersey wheelRef 1-J5
The domestic spinning wheel

Jew basketRef 1-J2
A wicker basket which holds pin-cushions, needle-books and other small items made and given by the women of the parish to raise money for conversion of the Jews and similar causes.

A missionary basket is similar

Jewish namesRef 1-3020

JigRef 1-1897
A cauldron which is used when dyeing or bleaching cloth.

A jiggsie is the worker who operates the jig

Jobs & OccupationsRef 1-965

JohnsoniansRef 1-393
A Baptist sect founded in the 18th century by John Johnson [1706-1791], a Baptist minister of Liverpool.

See Butts Green Baptist Chapel, Warley

Jolly RantRef 1-841
Influenza epidemic – or distemper – recorded in Halifax in December 1675

JosherRef 1-2879
A canal boat with double curved bows. These were associated with the canal company Fellows Morton & Clayton Limited. They were named after Joshua Fellows

JoynedRef 1-J6
Made by a joiner

JubileeRef 1-1156
Used in the names of streets and pubs, the element usually commemorates the Golden Jubilee [1887] or the Diamond Jubilee [1897] of Queen Victoria/

For example Diamond Jubilee Stout, Ellis Jubilee Clock Tower, Norwood Green, Hebden Bridge & District Jubilee Fund, Jubilee Drinking Fountain, West Vale, Jubilee Hotel, Southowram and Jubilee Road, Siddal

JubileeRef 1-J1
A cheap coal gathered from waste heaps at collieries

Judd wallRef 1-701
During stone quarrying, the waste material – or overburden – which was removed when sinking a mine, was hauled to the surface and built into a retaining wall, known as a judd wall. Behind this wall, other waste material was tipped to form a level field in due course. There are many examples of these in the district. They are in evidence throughout areas such as Southowram:

This & associated entries use material contributed by Steven Beasley

JugRef 1-J4
A slang term for a prison or a lockup

JumbleRef 1-2364
Used in place names – such as Jumble Dyke, Rastrick, Jumble Hole, Eastwood, and Jumble Wood, Norwood Green - the element may be related to dumbles, a Northern English word for a narrow valley with a rough stream running through

JurisdictionRef 1-1575
A district outside the manor which paid customary dues to the lord of the manor but which he did not own.

In the Danelaw, this was called a soke

Jus primae noctisRef 1-989
A mediæval right by which the lord of the manor could sleep the first night with the bride of a newly married serf. This could be avoided by the payment of a fine

Justice of the PeaceRef 1-2073
See Magistrate

Jute industryRef 1-351
Jute is used in the manufacture of sacks and sacking, upholstery, webbing, twine, and canvas for packaging and tufted carpet backing – although recently superseded by synthetic products.

See Hemp industry and Industry

© Malcolm Bull 2024
Revised 16:28 / 8th April 2024 / 18371

Page Ref: B113_J

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