Background Information



E-plan houseRef 1-10
A house with three bays projecting from the main building in an E shaped plan. One bay is usually the porch and entrance. Barkisland Hall is one example.

See Halifax house and Hall-and-cross-wing

EarlRef 1-934

Early English architectureRef 1-492
Architectural style – aka Gothic – which was found in Britain from around 1180 until 1520.

Features include

  • Pointed arches
  • Large window
  • Vaulted roofs
  • Buttresses
  • Spires

Earth closetRef 1-2346
Aka ash pit. A privy or lavatory in which human waste was covered with dry earth. These were replaced by water closets as Corporation sewerage facilities were introduced at the beginning of the 20th century.

See Goux and Night soil

East India CompanyRef 1-483
Trading company established on 31st December 1600 to trade with the East Indies.

It expanded to trading with India and China.

In 1708, it merged with another organisation to become the Honourable East India Company.

See 76th Regiment of Foot, Right Rev Thomas Carr, Indian Mutiny, Thomas John Maslen, William Raine, Christopher Rawson, Sir Richard Saltonstall and William Schorfield

EasterRef 1-723
The Christian festival which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

It is a movable feast, Easter Sunday falling on the first Sunday after the first full moon after the March equinox, 21st March. The Friday before Easter Sunday is known as Good Friday, The Thursday before Easter Sunday is known as Maundy Friday, The day after Easter Sunday is Easter Monday.

In 1928, the UK Parliament passed a law which allowed Easter Sunday to be fixed on the first Sunday after the second Saturday in April. This has never been implemented.

In January 2015, the Archbishop of Canterbury announced that he was working with other Christian churches - the Catholic church the Coptic church and the Orthodox church – to agree on a fixed date for Easter.

See Lent and Whitsuntide

Easter bookRef 1-E9
A list of parishioners who paid their tithes at Easter

EatageRef 1-1168
The rights to allow animals to graze on a piece of land

EaveRef 1-E2
The land at the edge of a village

EbriositisRef 1-1053

Ecclesiastical courtRef 1-2325
Introduced around the 16th century. A court – distinct from a civil court – which dealt with ecclesiastical law and religious matters, such as disputes over church attendance, behaviour in church, conduct of the clergy, the state of the church, immorality, and so on.

They were also known as Bawdy Courts because of the large number of cases involving fornication and adultery.

An apparitor summoned those who were required to appear at the court

EclampsiaRef 1-802
A general term for convulsions.

Nowadays, the name is used for convulsions causes by toxæmia during pregnancy

EdgeRef 1-640
Used in place names – such as Hove Edge – the element means an edge or an escarpment

Edward VIIRef 1-E694
He succeeded his mother,
Queen Victoria, as King of the United Kingdom [1901-1910]. He married Alexandra.

On 3rd August 1863, as Prince of Wales, he made the first Royal visit to the district when he formally opened Halifax Town Hall. This is discussed in the Foldout.

He was succeeded by his son, George.

See Alexandra Street Halifax, Coronation Estate, Halifax, King Cross Band, King Edward Street, Halifax, Albert Pile, Sandringham Time and James Sunderland Sladdin

Edward VIIIRef 1-E692
He succeeded his father,
George V, as King of the United Kingdom [20th January 1936-11th December 1936].

On 30th May 1923, he visited Queensbury as Prince of Wales.

On 15th October 1926, as Prince of Wales, he formally opened Shibden Park to the public.

He abdicated in order to marry the American divorcáe, Mrs Wallis Simpson.

He was succeeded by his brother, George VI.

See Sandringham Time

Eel thingRef 1-804
Another name for erysipelas

EffectsRef 1-2316
The total tangible and movable assets of a person at the time of his/her death, including household contents.

The terms goods & chattels are also used here.

See Estate

This & associated entries use material contributed by Carole Edwards Caruso & Nikki Elsom

EjectRef 1-124
In the 17th century, a minister could be expelled – ejected – from his incumbency for failing to observe the Act of Uniformity [1665].

Under the Five Mile Act, he would then be prevented from living within 5 miles of his old church.

The list of those who were ejected included Robert Armitage, William Ashley, Eli Bentley, Mr Bevel, Rev James Bowker, Richard Coore, Nicholas Cudworth, Rev Joseph Dawson, Christopher Etherington, Joshua Ferrett, Mr Fisden, Nathaniel Heywood, Rev Oliver Heywood, Edward Hill, Rev Josiah Holdsworth, John Kaye, Roger Kenion, Gamaliel Marsden, Jeremiah Marsden, Josiah Marsden, Samuel Marsden, John Peebles, John Robinson, Henry Root, Timothy Root, Rev Jonathan Schofield, Rev Samuel John Stancliffe, Robert Town, Rev Robert Towne and Rev Joshua Whitton

Electoral registerRef 1-E8
A document listing the people with a right to vote. The Representation of the People Act 1832, required the Clerk of the Peace to compile a register of those entitled to vote for Members of Parliament in the county constituency. The Parliamentary Reform Act [1832] required the publication of a list of persons eligible to vote in each parish. Before 1872, these were recorded in Poll books

Electoral wardsRef 1-2639
The Borough of Halifax had 6 wards.

Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council has 18 wards

See Parish Councils

EleemosynaryRef 1-E7
Supported by charity, or giving charity.

An eleemosynarius was an almoner

Elements used in place namesRef 1-E3

Elixir salutisRef 1-2464
See Daffy's Elixir

Elizabeth IIRef 1-E693
[1926-] She succeeded her father, George VI, as Queen of the United Kingdom [1952-].

As Princess Elizabeth, she and the Duke of Edinburgh visited Halifax on 26th July 1949.

Her children – Charles, Prince of Wales and Anne, Princess Royal – have made many visits to the district.

See St Peter's Church, Sowerby

EllRef 1-92
A unit of cloth equal to 45 inches.

See Cubit, Long ell and Ullnage

EllenRef 1-638
Used in place names – such as Ellen Royd, Elland and Ellen Royde, Midgley - the element means elder tree

ElmetRef 1-2185
In Celtic times, the Yorkshire area was divided into the British kingdoms of Loidis and Elmet. Around 550 AD, the Britons of Elmet resisted the expansion of the kingdom of Deira.

The people were defeated by the Anglo-Saxons in a battle near Catterick in 600 AD, and the kingdom of Northumbria was born.

Elmet was annexed by Edwin of Northumbria in 617.

Calderdale was in the Elmet kingdom which covers present-day West and South Yorkshire – approximately the old West Riding

EmigrationRef 1-459

See America, Australia, New Zealand, India, Africa, South America, Canada, Portugal and Burma and also Emigration Society

Emigration SocietyRef 1-489
A popular arrangement in the 19th century in England, where groups of people, particularly those from a farming background, pooled there resources to buy land in areas of the US which were being opened up to settlement.

The US government at the time were putting out promotional literature to try and increase immigration from Europe, which was mainly from England, Germany, and in particular Ireland because of their potato famine.

See Emigration

This & associated entries use material contributed by Jarlath Bancroft

EmparkingRef 1-2301
The establishment or setting up parks for deer hunting. Deer were the property of the crown, and a licence was required to set up a deer park – although this was often ignored

EmpressRef 1-E13
A large slate

Empress Of IrelandRef 1-E771
On 29th May 1914, the ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland was rammed by a Norwegian coal ship in the fog in the Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. The vessel sank in 14 minutes. 1,012 passengers and crew died, including John Furness.

See Lusitania and Titanic

En ventre sa mèreRef 1-966
A French phrase meaning
in his/her mother's belly

which is used in legal documents to refer to a child yet unborn at the time of writing the will

EnclosuresRef 1-212
The system of appropriating common land as private property – changing open field systems to enclosed fields – began in the 14th century and became widespread later, resulting in poverty, starvation, homelessness, and rural depopulation

EndRef 1-765
When this element is used in placenames, it can mean an area or a district

Engineering industryRef 1-347
There was a thriving light engineering industry in Halifax, and the Courier records that, in 1926, there were 70 engineering factories in the town.

The Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, and World War I, gave a great impetus to the local engineering industry.

The town had the largest manufacturing base outside the East Midlands.

Machine-tools – especially lathes – were internationally-popular products.

One of the best-known of which was probably Frank Ford, whose fish and chip frying equipment can be found the world over

See Industry

English DiseaseRef 1-883
Aka Sweating sickness

English HeritageRef 1-539
An organisation which manages the historic buildings of England.

See Listed Buildings, All Saints' Church, Elland, Buildings At Risk, Losang Dragpa Buddhist College & Meditation Centre and National Trust

English SurnamesRef 1-974

EnglishryRef 1-E4
A fine paid by a hundred for the murder of a Norman. After the Conquest, Normans were often ambushed and slain by the English. The hundred in which the body was found would be fined unless they could prove that the victim was English

EnochRef 1-2299
A large sledgehammer manufactured by brothers, Enoch and James Taylor.

The brothers also constructed a perpetual shearing machine which jeopardised the work of the croppers and was one of the main targets in the Luddites' demonstrations. During their activities, the Luddites used the sledgehammers hammers to smash machines, giving rise to the cry

Enoch makes 'em and Enoch breaks 'em

EntailRef 1-E10
To bequeath an estate in a named sequence of succession. This was a way of ensuring that the estate cannot be dispersed

Enteric feverRef 1-850
Aka Typhoid.

Many men died of this whilst serving in South Africa during the Boer Wars

EpergneRef 1-919
An ornamental centrepiece, with holders for flowers, bonbons etc., used as a decoration for a table. Often mentioned – along with gold clocks – in reports of awards and retirements

EphemeraRef 1-E12
document which are intended to have a short life-span – such as playbills, newspapers, advertisements

EpilepsyRef 1-848
Aka Falling sickness. A sudden disturbance of the electrical rhythms of the brain which may produce convulsive attacks and loss of consciousness. Three Kings Rings were believed to cure epilepsy.

See Grand Mal and Petit Mal

EpitaphRef 1-1831
Aka Monumental inscription. An inscription on a grave or a memorial. Many of these were written in Latin

Some local epitaphs, graves and memorials are recorded with the entries for individual people and families

Epps's CocoaRef 1-734
Their advertisements

No Breakfast Table complete without
The Most Nutritious and Economical

feature in many newspapers around 1900

ErysipelasRef 1-837
Aka Eel thing, St Anthony's Fire. An acute skin disease of the skin – usually on the face or scalp – caused by bacterial infection. The infection starts at a point where the skin is broken and spreads, producing an intense deep red local inflammation of the skin with small blisters and a generalised fever

EscheatRef 1-2336
Property that passes to the lord of the manor when a tenant died without heir, or by forfeiture, or when the tenant was guilty of an offence

EscudoRef 1-2980
A Portuguese coin.

The pistole was equivalent to 2 escudo.

See Foreign coins

EsperantoRef 1-1218
A language intended for international communication and created by L. L. Zamenhof around 1887.

Around 1900, many groups of Esperantists were established.

See Percy Clayton, Halifax Esperanto Association, Andrew Lochhead and Todmorden Esperanto Society

EsquireRef 1-2575
In mediæval times, this was a man who served and carried the shield – the word comes from escutifer = scutiger = shield bearer – for the lord of manor or a knight.

He was once an apprentice knight and might be aged 13 to 21.

In the 16th century, it was an officer of the Crown.

A squire had the formal title of Esquire. He might also be addressed as Mr. His sons would be given the title of Generosus. When the first-born son & heir inherited the estate, he received the title Esquire.

The sons of a men titled esquire are titled gentlemen.

It acquired its current use as a courtesy title for gentlemen in the 19th century, and later for all men.

See Squire

Esquire of the BodyRef 1-1015
A personal attendant and courtier to the king. He would have responsibilities in the king's household. To gain this high position a man would normally be a son of a knight or a knight himself

This & associated entries use material contributed by Joanne Backhouse

EssoinRef 1-E5
An excuse for non-attendance at a court.

A man was allowed a certain number of absences or non-appearances without penalty, provided that the excuse was genuine and valid – for example, illness serious enough to confine him to bed, absence abroad, being busy in the king's service, or misadventure en route to court.

In the Wakefield Manor Court Rolls, they often do not record the reasons given, but the common ones were

essoin de malo lecti

that is, being sick in bed, and

essoin de malo veniendi

becoming sick en route.

Essoin day was the first day of the term of the court, when the essoins were submitted

This & associated entries use material contributed by Joanne Backhouse

EstateRef 1-2310
The total net worth of a person at the time of his/her death. This includes all his assets.

See Effects

This & associated entries use material contributed by Nikki Elsom

EstoversRef 1-975
A mediæval right to gather wood

See Pannage

European WarRef 1-1173

EvasiveRef 1-E11
A metal token which looked like – but did not pretend to be – a coin of the realm. They evaded the regulations against counterfeiting since they did not pretend to be currency

EverlastingsRef 1-147
A strong, twilled cloth.

See Lasting

ExRef 1-639
This Celtic element is used in place names such as Exley and Oxygrains and has several forms – ex, ox, and usc - and means water

ExplorersRef 1-E1
There are several entries for explorers and mountaineers with links to the district

See John Garforth Cockin, John Alan Coley, Sir Savile Brinton Crossley, Edith Durham, John Percy Farrar, Frobisher brothers, Joseph Frobisher, Frances Greenwood, Dr David Livingstone, Thomas John Maslen, Eric Platt, James Ramsden, Commander Wyatt Rawson, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Sir Henry Morton Stanley, Colin J. Swale, Rosie Swale-Pope, Robert Uttley and Lawrence Rickard Wager

ExtentRef 1-2357
A terrier, a written description of the estate or land belonging to a manor

ExtractRef 1-2448
Wool recovered by carbonising and used in the production of low-quality textiles

EyreRef 1-E6
The right of the king – or court acting in his name – to visit and inspect the holdings of any vassal. This was done at intervals of a few years

© Malcolm Bull 2024
Revised 12:33 / 3rd April 2024 / 38345

Page Ref: B113_E

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